Everything You Should Know About Viral Gastroenteritis In Children
Gastroenteritis is usually caused by a viral, bacterial, or parasitic infection. If your child has gastro, make sure he gets enough fluid.
Viral gastroenteritis (gastro) is a bowel infection, caused by a virus. It causes runny, watery poo and sometimes vomiting. Children with gastroenteritis need to drink plenty of fluids.
What causes viral gastroenteritis?
A virus usually causes gastro. The common viruses are rotavirus and adenovirus but there are many others. Because there are many viruses that cause it, your child can get gastro more than once.
Infants younger than 15 weeks of age can receive the rotavirus vaccination from the hospital. This protects them against one of the most common causes of gastro. See the page about rotavirus immunization.
Sometimes bacteria can cause gastro but this is much less common. This can cause blood in the poo.
How do children catch the gastroenteritis virus?
A child can catch the virus when they:
- touch something which has been in contact with the diarrhoea or vomit of a person with the infection, and
- they put their hand in their mouth
The virus is easily spread in homes, daycare, kindergartens and schools. The vomiting may settle quickly but the diarrhoea often lasts for up to 10 days. This doesn't matter as long as your child is drinking well and seems to be improving.
Gastro affects all age groups, but is more common, and can be worse, in babies and young children.
What are the signs and symptoms of viral gastroenteritis?
The most common symptoms are:
- feeling sick (nausea)
- diarrhoea (runny, watery poo)
Sometimes a child with gastro will also have:
- a fever
- tummy pains
How can I care for my child with viral gastroenteritis at home?
If your child is over 6 months old and has mild gastro and is not dehydrated, you can care for him at home. The main treatment is to keep giving your child fluids. Whichever fluids your child is having, the important thing is to:
- offer small amounts of fluid often rather than giving large amounts; aim for a quarter of a cup every 15 minutes or 1 teaspoon or 5 ml in a syringe every minute
- keep offering your child fluids even if he is vomiting
Types of fluids
- if you are breastfeeding, continue to feed on demand - you may need to feed more frequently and take extra fluid
- your child is on formula, continue to give them formula feeds
- if your child is over 1 year, you may give them cow's milk
You may also give your child the following drinks as long as they are not dehydrated. You must dilute the drinks with water as they contain too much sugar (which can make the diarrhoea worse).
- soup – add 5 parts of water to 1 part of soup
- fruit juice – add 5 parts of water to 1 part of juice
- fizzy drinks such as lemonade – add 5 parts of warm water to 1 part of drink (warm water removes the bubbles)
Your doctor or pharmacist may recommend electrolyte solutions such as Gastrolyte or Pedialyte if your child is dehydrated. You can buy these from your pharmacist - follow the instructions on the packet.
Do not give infants or children with diarrhoea:
- undiluted soft drinks, fruit juices, Lucozade, Ribena, sports drinks (such as Powerade or Gatorade) - these contain too much sugar and can make your child's diarrhoea worse
- coffee and tea - these can make your child dehydrated
Should I keep giving my child their normal food if they have viral gastroenteritis?
- you can offer your child food if they are hungry, even if diarrhoea continues
- continuing to feed your child can speed up recovery and can reduce the length of time your child has diarrhoea
- your child may refuse food at first – this is not a problem as long as they take fluids
- if possible do not stop giving food for more than 24 hours
- starchy simple foods are best – try and offer foods such as bread or toast, porridge, rice, potatoes, plain biscuits, yoghurt, milk pudding
Do not give your child fatty or sugary foods such as:
- chips, sweets, cakes, chocolate, ice cream, cream, coconut cream
Will my child need any medicines for gastroenteritis?
Do not give your child medicines to reduce diarrhoea. They do not work and may be harmful. Your doctor may occasionally prescribe medicine for vomiting. Follow your doctor's instructions. You cannot treat viral gastro with antibiotics. The body will clear out the virus on its own without treatment.
What can I do for my baby's sore bottom from diarrhoea?
Diarrhoea can cause a rash. After each bowel motion, wash and dry your child's bottom well and then put on a protective cream or ointment (such as zinc and castor oil cream or Vaseline).
How can I tell if my child is dehydrated from vomiting and diarrhoea?
Dehydration is the loss of fluid, due to vomiting and diarrhoea. The younger the child, the easier it is for them to become dehydrated.
Watch for signs of dehydration:
- dry mouth and tongue
- sunken eyes
- cold hands and feet
- unusual sleepiness or lack of energy
- fewer wet nappies or not passing as much urine as usual
If your child has any of these signs, you need to take them to see a doctor urgently.
When should I seek help for my child with gastroenteritis?
You should see your doctor or after hours medical centre urgently if:
- the child has vomiting and/or diarrhoea and is less than 6 months old – babies can become dehydrated and unwell quickly
- your child is drowsy and difficult to rouse
- he has a lot of diarrhoea (8 to 10 watery motions in 1 day)
- there is blood or mucus in your child's poo
- vomiting is increasing or your child cannot keep fluids down
- your child starts vomiting green fluid (bile)
- the child develops severe stomach pains
- your child shows signs of dehydration
- you are concerned for any other reason
You should see your doctor if:
- your child's diarrhoea continues for more than 10 days
How can I help prevent the spread of viral gastroenteritis?
Gastro spreads very easily to others. There are ways to help prevent spreading the disease.
- Thorough handwashing
Handwashing is especially important after going to the toilet, after nappy changing and before handling food. Encourage your child to wash and dry their hands after using the toilet.
- Cleaning toilet and bathroom areas
It is a good idea to thoroughly clean your toilet and bathroom areas.
- Washing dirty clothes
Wash your child's dirty clothing, in hot water preferably, and rinse separately from the rest of the family laundry.
- Avoiding sharing food and drinks
Make sure your child doesn't share food or drinks with anyone else.
- Keep them away from others
Keep your child away from friends and other children until vomiting and diarrhoea have stopped. Children with diarrhoea must stay away from daycare, kindergarten and school until there has been no diarrhoea for 48 hours.